Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 Review of Scientific Evidence.
By SK Dash, PhD and SV Gerasimov, MD, PhD
For more than 30 years, the Lactobacillus acidophilus
DDS-1 strain has been marketed commercially
worldwide as an effective probiotic strain. It has
been the subject of a variety of in vitro, human and
animal studies for more than 40 years. The focus of the
efﬁcacy research on this strain has been on its nutritional,
antibacterial and anti-pathogenic, anti-carcinogenic and
Recent research on the effect of probiotics on the course of
atopic dermatitis in preschool children showed signiﬁcant
impact of DDS-1 strain during an eight-week treatment period
(Gerasimov 2008). Children receiving DDS-1 had significantly
greater improvement in mean SCORAD score with values
of -8.7, -14.2 versus -5.1, -7.8 at week four and eight,
respectively, relative to placebo. At ﬁnal visit, mean decrease of
SCORAD approached 33.7% in the probiotic group and 19.4%
in the placebo group. Shift from severe to moderate AD was
seen in 12 (27.9%) and eight (16.6%) patients in the probiotic
and placebo groups, respectively. Infant dermatitis quality of life
and dermatitis family impact changed from baseline by 33.0%
and 34.4% in the probiotic group relative to 19.0% and 23.8%
in the placebo group, at weeks four and eight, respectively.
In the probiotic group, frequency of local corticosteroid use
decreased from 2.0 to 0.8 times per week, while in the placebo
group, corticosteroid use decreased from 1.7 to 1.2 times per
week with no signiﬁcant difference between groups at week
IMPACT ON FECAL MICROECOLOGY
The ability of a probiotic to survive acid and bile are key
determinants in determining the ability to colonize the digestive
track (Sanders 1996, Walker 1993). Unpublished evidence
has conﬁrmed the ability of L. acidophilus DDS-1 to survive
in acidic media, as well as in media containing up to 3% bile
acids. Of greatest relevance, however, is whether or not a
particular strain is capable of appreciably altering stool ecology.
In a preliminary study, 10 subjects were administered two
billion CFU L. acidophilus DDS-1 for three weeks. Stool
concentrations of L. acidophilus DDS-1 were determined
before and after the three-week intervention period (Peterson
1998). The 10 subjects experienced a mean 100-fold increase
in fecal concentrations of L. acidophilus DDS-1 following
three weeks of daily supplementation. This outcome conﬁrms
survival, implantation and multiplication of L. acidophilus DDS-
1 following oral administration in humans.
In children, administration of L. acidophilus DDS-1 and
Biﬁdobacterium lactis reduced fecal counts of opportunistic
enterobacteria (Proteus, Klebsiella, Cytrobacter, Enterobacter,
Pseudomonas spp) (Gerasimov 2008). Interestingly, this
intervention (10 billion CFU combined lactobacilli and
biﬁdobacterium per day) failed to achieve statistically
signiﬁcant increases in either probiotic species in stool.
L. acidophilus DDS-1 is a unique endogenous human strain
developed at the University of Nebraska and is protected by
U.S. patent, and commercially manufactured and trademarked
by UAS Laboratories. The morphological and cultural
characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 have been
determined in order to conﬁrm the genus and species of the
isolate called “ Acidophilin” (Shahani 1976, Vakil 1965). This
culture was observed to be microaerophilic and produced acid
from glucose, galactose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, mannose
and maltose. It had the ability to grow in acidic media and
could ferment amygdalin, cellibiose and salicin. Rafﬁnose,
trehalose and dextrin were fermented very slightly. Additionally,
the organism grew in tomato juice both containing 2% NaCl or
bile salts; it did not grow in broth containing 4% NaCl or bile
salts. These characteristics are attributable to L. acidophilus
and thus conﬁrmed the identity of the isolate DDS-1.
DDS-1 produces enzymes such as proteases and lipases,
which can help with the breakdown of protein and fats.
Acidophilus milk (both fermented and unfermented) containing
DDS-1 was shown to have a higher protein digestibility than
heated milk when tested in rats (Lee 1988). However, ability of
these enzymes produced in situ to improve digestion has not
been documented. Cultured dairy products fermented with
DDS-1 had higher levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 (Rao
1987), suggesting the metabolic ability of this strain to produce
some B vitamins.
Cholesterol-lowering effect of DDS-1 has been demonstrated
in a rat model. Relative to control milk, milk fortiﬁed with four
million L. acidophilus DDS-1 cells per milliliter achieved signiﬁ
cant reductions in cholesterol levels of the animals (Sinha
Lipid peroxidation products in stool ﬁltrate of children were
found to be impacted by feeding of L. acidophilus DDS-1 plus
B. lactis twice daily for two months (Gerasimov 2008).
The diets of probiotic versus control children were kept
constant over the two-month treatment period, and stool
concentrations of total lipid peroxides and thiobarbituric acid
conjugates were assessed. L. acidophilus DDS-1 and B.lactis
administration resulted in signiﬁcant increases in fecal levels of
both oxidative stress markers. While considered an undesirable
outcome in plasma, the increase in fecal concentrations may
be interpreted as evidence of increased metabolic activity of
intestinal ﬂora under the inﬂuence of the two administered
Traveller’s diarrhea: One research team investigated the
effects of L. acidophilus DDS-1 on traveller’s diarrhea, studying
70 subjects over three different study periods (Senhert 1989).
In open-label fashion, subjects received L. acidophilus DDS-1
capsules (two capsules taken before breakfast, each capsule
providing one billion CFU) for one week prior to travel, and
during the entire duration of travel. Subjects visited Guatemala,
Mexico or Nepal. The anticipated incidence of gastrointestinal
disturbance during such travel is 25-30%. Two of the 70
subjects (3%) receiving L. acidophilus DDS-1 supplements
reported experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms during their
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTI-PATHOGENIC EFFECTS
A compound with antibacterial properties is produced by
DDS-1. Named ‘acidophilin’, this compound was isolated
from milk in which DDS-1 was grown. The compound
demonstrated activity against Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium
botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Proteus
mirabilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium,
Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus faecalis (Shahani
1976, Shahani 1977). As an important follow-up to this in
vitro demonstration of activity, Zychowicz demonstrated the
effectiveness of acidophilus milk on decreasing the carrier state
Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1
Review of Scientific Evidence
14 nutraceuticals now
and on the incidence and duration of Salmonella and Shigella
dysentery in children (Zychowicz 1977, Zychowicz 1974).
The ability of DDS-1 to inhibit S. aureus was further
demonstrated. S. aureus growth was inhibited in acidophilus
yogurt likely due to a combination of activity of hydrogen
peroxide, lactic acid and bacteriocin (Attaie 1987).
More recently, Yasmin et al reported the ability of DDS-1
to inhibit in a co-culture assay Helicobacter pylori at ratios
of 1:1 through 1:1000 (L. acidophilus DDS-1:H. pylori) or
higher (Yasmin 2002). The mechanisms and in vivo impact are
subjects for further study.
There is growing evidence suggesting that probiotics can be
effective in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection
(UTI). The proposed mechanism of action includes inhibition of
growth and adhesion of pathogens at the vaginal and urethral
mucosa before ascension of these pathogens into the bladder
(Tramer 1966). In a case study, L. acidophilus DDS-1 with two
billion viable organisms was given twice daily for a month and
followed up with once daily to patients. It showed positive
effects (Gerasimov 2004).
Effect on Candida albicans: L. acidophilus DDS-1 is
a producer of hydrogen peroxide (Attaie 1987). Several
researchers have suggested that Lactobacilli may be used
to supply hydrogen peroxide-thiocyanate anti-microbial
system (Eschenbach 1989, Klebanoff 1970, Marshall 1982).
Evidence has been presented that thiocyanate is involved
in the inhibition of Candida albicans by certain strains of L.
acidophilus (Jack 1990).
The anti-tumorigenic properties of DDS-1 were tested in a
rat model of chemically induced colon tumors (Lee 1996). A
standard diet supplemented with DDS-1 was fed to a group
of rats injected subcutaneously with a colon tumor-inducing
chemical (N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine). Tumor incidence
was assessed at 26 and 40 weeks.
At 26 weeks, the DDS-1 fed rats demonstrated a statistically
signiﬁcant reduction in tumor incidence compared to the
control group. At 40 weeks, tumors in the DDS-1 group were
fewer and smaller than in the control group. These results
suggest that DDS-1 may delay the initiation process of
chemically induced colon tumors in rats.
Methanol-acetone and silica gel fractionation extracts of
DDS-1 were evaluated in vitro against the KB-line and Hiline
of cancer cells in tissue culture and in a mouse model of
Sarcoma (Shahani 1969). Morphological changes and growth
inhibition of the KB cell line was observed in vitro and speciﬁ c
inhibitory activity was observed against Sarcoma-180 cells.
The mechanism of DDS-1 induced suppression of tumors
was evaluated (Rangavajhyala 1997). Using a mouse
macrophage cell line, investigators determined that DDS-1
was able to stimulate the production of immune components
(interleukin-1α and tumour necrosis factor-α) that are known
killers or inhibitors of tumor cells. DDS-1 performed this
function better than three other strains of L. acidophilus
(NRRL 0734, NRRL 6934, NRRL B4527) or Biﬁ dobacterium
biﬁdum (strain not speciﬁed). Interestingly, the effect was also
observed with heat-killed DDS-1.
With the incorporation of a patented technology from
University of Wisconsin/WARF (DePablo 2003) into the
manufacturing of L. acidophilus DDS-1 (UAS Labs) culture,
L. acidophilus DDS-1 is stable for up to two years at ambient
temperature (23°C) when blended with a recommended
excipient such as low water activity microcrystalline cellulose.
L. acidophilus DDS-1 was combined with Biﬁdobacterium
longum at equal ratio
and fortiﬁed with fructooligosaccharide at 5%. This
supplement called DDS-Plus manufactured by UAS
Laboratories was tested for potency every month for 12
months using the Standard Methods for Dairy Products
(Marshall 1993). The stability curve shows that L. acidophilus
DDS-1 is very stable, demonstrating a 7% loss of potency over
a 12-month period.
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